Saturday, August 01, 2015

Habermas: The German reaction was shameful

A German version of an interview with Jürgen Habermas in the weekly French news magazine "L'Obs" (July 30, 2015):

"Die Reaktion der deutschen Regierung war schändlich"

The interview was conducted by Odile Benyahia-Kouider.

Excerpt

Q: Meinungsumfragen zeigen, dass eine deutliche Mehrheit der Deutschen den Positionen der Bundesregierung von Angela Merkel zustimmt, obwohl die Verhandlungen für Griechenlands Regierung erniedrigend waren. Bedeutet das, die Deutschen haben an Europa als einem politischen Projekt kein Interesse mehr?

A: Was erwarten Sie von einer Bevölkerung, die von ihren Regierungen nie ernsthaft mit europäischen Fragen konfrontiert worden ist? Bei uns gibt es ein Sprichwort: Wie man in den Wald hineinruft, so schallt es heraus. Die Europapolitik, die von Anbeginn über die Köpfe unserer Bevölkerungen hinweg betrieben worden ist, ist das Paradebeispiel für den allgemeinen Trend einer Austrocknung der politischen Öffentlichkeit. Regierungen, die ihre Wähler eher einlullen als aufscheuchen möchten, werden von einer Presse unterstützt, die lieber Kunden betreut statt Konflikte aufzugreifen und aufzuklären. Die deutschen Wähler haben von der Krisenpolitik der letzten Jahre Schlagworte wie "Solidarität gegen Solidität" im Ohr. Ihnen ist das Gefühl gegeben worden, dass sie die Kanzlerin, die ihr Geld zusammenhält, nur machen lassen sollen. Die CDU hat die sogenannte "Transferunion" zum Schreckgespenst aufgeplustert; und jetzt haben alle Parteien Angst, diese selbstgebastelte Hürde zu nehmen. Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel hat soeben noch vor dem Bundestag ihr Mantra wiederholt: "Mit mir wird es keinen Schuldenschnitt geben". Dabei weiß sie so gut wie der IWF, dass eine zügige Rekonstruktion der griechischen Schulden ganz unvermeidlich ist. Statt ihren Wählern unangenehme politische Alternativen zu erklären, kaufen die politischen Eliten Zeit mit Milliardenkrediten.
Lassen Sie mich auf Ihre Frage zurückkommen. Abgesehen davon, dass die verteufelten Transfers längst stattfinden, gibt es durchaus empirische Anhaltspunkte dafür, dass eine hartnäckige, informierte öffentliche Debatte über die Notwendigkeiten und die längerfristigen Vorteile einer gemeinsamen Fiskal-, Wirtschafts- und Sozialpolitik in Deutschland zu einem Meinungsumschwung führen können.

Q: Hat diese griechische Krise gezeigt, dass die EU ohne politische Einheit nicht überleben wird?

A: Ja, ohne die zusammenführenden Kräfte einer politischen Union werden unsere nationalen Wirtschaften weiter auseinanderdriften. Die europäische Währungsgemeinschaft ist zu heterogen zusammengesetzt. Wir können deshalb nur noch zurück- oder vorangehen. "Der Stillstand ist der Tod", sagt ein Filmtitel meines Freundes Alexander Kluge. Ich glaube, dass die Auflösung der Eurozone wohl nur als Konsequenz einer  unbeabsichtigten Kettenreaktion eintreten könnte. Dann müsste gerade die Linke für das Zurück zum Nationalstaat einen hohen Preis zahlen. Denn ohne eine supranational handlungsfähige Euro-Union müsste sie jede Hoffnung auf eine politische Reregulierung der aus dem Ruder gelaufenen Finanzwirtschaft fahren lassen. Aber auch der andere Weg ist riskant. Starke Interessen zielen auf eine technokratische Banken-, Fiskal- und Wirtschaftsunion, die ohne demokratische Geräusche Marktimperative geräuschlos umsetzt. Daher wird alles darauf ankommen, dem Europäischen Parlament die gleichen Rechte einzuräumen wie dem Rat. Das funktioniert wiederum nur, wenn es gelingt, ein europaweites Parteiensystem aufzubauen und die Bevölkerungen selbst in einen politischen Prozess einzubeziehen, der bisher an ihnen vorbeiläuft. Vor wenigen Wochen haben der französische und der deutsche Wirtschaftsminister, Macron und Gabriel, ein Papier lanciert, das in dieser Hinsicht doch noch sehr ambivalent ist. Ein "europäischer Finanzminister" ist keine Lösung.


See the French translation of the interview in "L'Obs": "La réaction abrupte de l'Allemagne a été indigne". 

See also Gregor Dotzauer's article on Habermas in "Der Tagesspiegel" (July 31, 2015): "Der deutsche Deutschen-Kritiker".

Wednesday, July 29, 2015

Habermas and Scharpf on Transnational Democracy in Europe

"Leviathan: Berliner Zeitschrift für Sozialwissenschaft" (vol. 43, no. 2, 2015) contains a new text by Jürgen Habermas:

Der Demos der Demokratie – eine Replik

Abstrabt
"Fritz Scharpf assumes that national economic cultures and lifestyles within the European Monetary Union are too heterogeneous to allow a common democratic legislation on the basis of informal generalizable interests. Even if this were feasible, a democratically constituted Euro-Union is not even desirable. This variant of the well-known no-demos thesis relies implicitly on a political theory that the acceptance of democratic majority decisions is always dependent on an intact socially-inclusive implicite consensus of the citizens. The criticism is directed against both the philosophical presuppositions of this theory as well as against the application of the principle of the indisputable legal protection of cultural identities of unique national economic cultures. The common elements in a civil society which define its identity change not only as part of social evolution processes, they are formed by democratic involvement in civil societal processes of self-understanding. An expansion of the monetary union to a political union could stop the undemocratic connection of apparent nation-state sovereignty with the actually enforced technocratic compliance to market imperatives „without alternatives“. A return to national currencies, on the other hand, would mean resigning the progressingly political self-emasculation of policy to the globalized financial markets."

Habermas's comments are a response to Fritz Scharpf's "Das Dilemma der supranationalen Demokratie in Europa" (Leviathan vol. 43 no. 1, 2015), where Scharpf criticized Habermas's article ”Warum der Ausbau der Europäischen Union zu einer supranationalen Demokratie nötig und wie er möglich ist” (Leviathan vol. 42 no. 4, 2014). [An English translation of Habermas's article is available here.] 

Scharpf is responding to Habermas's comments in the same issue of Leviathan: "Deliberative Demokratie in der europäischen Mehrebenenpolitik – eine zweite Replik".

Essays on Honneth's "Freedom's Rights"

The current issue of "Critical Horizons: A Journal of Philosophy and Social Theory" (May 2015) features essays on Axel Honneth's book "Freedom's Right" (Columbia University Press, 2014) and a response by Honneth:

Misdevelopments, Pathologies, and Normative Revolutions [pdf] - Jörg Schaub

Honneth on Social Pathologies: A Critique [pdf] - Fabian Freyenhagen

Social Freedom and Self-Actualization [pdf] - David N. McNeill

Social Freedom and Progress in the Family - Lois McNay

Is the Market a Sphere of Social Freedom? [pdf] - Timo Jütten

Rejoinder - Axel Honneth

Friday, July 17, 2015

Habermas on the EU/Greece debt deal

A short interview with Habermas, published by "The Guardian" (July 16, 2015):

Habermas on the EU-Greece debt deal.

See reports in

- New York Times

- Liberation

See also Habermas's article on the Greek debt crisis (June 2015).

Friday, July 10, 2015

Kenneth Baynes on Habermas - A New Introduction



Habermas

by Kenneth Baynes

(Routledge, August 2015)

256 pages




Description

In this introduction Kenneth Baynes engages with the full range of Habermas’s philosophical work, addressing his early arguments concerning the emergence of the public sphere and his initial attempt to reconstruct a critical theory of society in Knowledge and Human Interests. He then examines one of Habermas’s most influential works, The Theory of Communicative Action, including his controversial account of the rational interpretation of social action. Also covered is Habermas’s work on discourse ethics, political and legal theory, including his views on the relation between democracy and constitutionalism, and his arguments concerning human rights and cosmopolitanism. The final chapter assesses Habermas’s role as a polemical and prominent public intellectual and his criticism of postmodernism in The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity, in addition to his more recent writings on the relationship between religion and democracy.

Contents

1. Life and Works 
2. Habermas’s Initial Attempts at a Critical Theory of Society 
3. The Theory of Communicative Action: Habermas’s Model of a Critical Social Science 
4. Habermas’s "Kantian Pragmatism" 
5. Locating Discourse Morality 
6. Democracy and the Rechtsstaat: Habermas’s Between Facts and Norms 
7. Deliberative Democracy, Public Reason, and Democracy Beyond the Nation-State 
8. A "Sobered" Philosophy: Postmodernism, Postmetaphysical Thinking, and Postsecularism 
9. Conclusion

Kenneth Baynes is Professor of Philosophy at Syracuse University, USA. He is the author of "The Normative Grounds of Social Criticism: Kant, Rawls and Habermas" (State University of New York Press, 1992) and co-editor (with Rene von Schomberg) of "Discourse and Democracy. Essays on Habermas's Between Facts and Norms" (State University of New York Press, 2002).

Reviews

"An exceptionally valuable introduction and guide to the career of Jürgen Habermas. Baynes links Habermas’s work to debates in recent American analytic philosophy, as well as to that of prominent European thinkers, whose significance Baynes clearly explains. This book will inform professional philosophical discussion, and also serve as an accessible and always reliable guide for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses." - Hugh Baxter, Boston University.

"Baynes' book is at once an up-to-date synthesis centered on the leitmotif of Kantian pragmatism, a summary of Habermas’s debates with major interlocutors in Continental and Analytic philosophy, a probing critique of his social and political theory, and a lucid, concise, and accessible introduction suitable for teaching. It is the most successful overview of Europe’s most prominent philosopher and social thinker now available." - Matthew Specter, Central Connecticut State University.

"Baynes really knows his Habermas and he writes clearly and fluidly. Accessible and sophisticated at the same time, scholar and undergraduate alike will find this book a worthwhile read." - Simone Chambers, University of Toronto.


Other introductions to Habermas:

James Gordon Finlayson - Habermas: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2005)

Lasse Thomassen - Habermas: A Guide for the Perplexed (Continuum, 2010)

David Ingram - Habermas - Introduction and Analysis (Cornell University Press, 2010)

Monday, June 29, 2015

Oxford Studies in Political Philosophy



Oxford Studies in Political Philosophy, Volume 1

Ed. by David Sobel, Peter Vallentyne & Steven Wall

(Oxford University Press, 2015)

336 pages




Description

This is the inaugural volume of Oxford Studies in Political Philosophy (OSPP). Since its revival in the 1970s political philosophy has been a vibrant field in philosophy, one that intersects with jurisprudence, normative economics, political theory in political science departments, and just war theory. OSPP aims to publish some of the best contemporary work in political philosophy and these closely related subfields. 

Contents [preview]

Introduction [preview] - Steven Wall

Part I. Democracy

1. Justice, Political and Social - Philip Pettit 
2. Voting and Causal Responsibility [video] - Geoffrey Brennan & Geoffrey Sayre-McCord 

Part II. Political Liberalism and Public Reason

3. Political Liberalism: Its Motivations and Goals - Charles Larmore 
4. Political Liberalism, Political Independence and Moral Authority [draft] - Dale Dorsey 
5. Against Public Reason [paper] - David Enoch

Part III. Rights and Duties

6. Territorial Rights: Justificatory Strategies [draft] - A. John Simmons
7. Can Reductive Individualists Allow Defense Against Political Aggression?  - Helen Frowe 
8. Elbow Room for Rights - Eric Mack 
9. Rights and Responsibilities - Jonathan Quong & Rebecca Stone 
10. What is Wrongful Exploitation? [draft] - Thomas Christiano

Part IV. Method

11. Value Freeness and Value Neutrality in the Analysis of Political Concepts - Ian Carter 

Tuesday, June 23, 2015

Habermas on the Greek debt crisis and the EU

Jürgen Habermas writes in "Süddeutsche Zeitung" (June 23, 2015) about the Greek debt crisis and the EU: 

"Europa: Sand im Getriebe"

Excerpt

Das griechische Wahlergebnis ist das Votum einer Nation, die sich mit deutlicher Mehrheit gegen das ebenso erniedrigende wie niederdrückende soziale Elend einer dem Land oktroyierten Sparpolitik zur Wehr setzt. An dem Votum selbst gibt es nichts zu deuteln: Die Bevölkerung lehnt die Fortführung einer Politik ab, deren Fehlschlag sie am eigenen Leibe drastisch erfahren hat. Mit dieser demokratischen Legitimation ausgestattet, macht die griechische Regierung den Versuch, einen Politikwechsel in der Euro­Zone herbeizuführen.

Dabei stößt sie in Brüssel auf die Repräsentanten von 18 anderen Regierungen, die ihre Ablehnung mit dem kühlen Hinweis auf ihr eigenes demokratisches Mandat rechtfertigen. Man erinnert sich an jene ersten Begegnungen, als sich die präpotent auftretenden Novizen in der Hochstimmung ihres Triumphes mit den teils paternalistisch­onkelhaft, teils routiniert­abfällig reagierenden Eingesessenen einen grotesken Schlagabtausch lieferten: Beide Seiten pochten papageienhaft darauf, vom jeweilig eigenen "Volk" autorisiert worden zu sein.

Die ungewollte Komik ihres einträchtig nationalstaatlichen Denkens führte der europäischen Öffentlichkeit unübertrefflich vor Augen, was wirklich fehlt ­ ein Fokus für eine gemeinsame politische Willensbildung der Bürger über folgenreiche politische Weichenstellungen in Kerneuropa

Update:
English translation at "Social Europe":

"Why Angela Merkel is Wrong on Greece"


See also Derek Scally's report in "The Irish Times":
"Greek crisis: Merkel placing investors above democracy, says Habermas"


French translation in "Le Monde" (June 24, 2015):

"La scandaleuse politique grecque de l’Europe

Swedish translation in "Dagens Nyheter" (June 24, 2015):

"Det är vi som bär skulden, inte Grekland

Danish translation in "Information" (June 26, 2015):

"Hvorfor EU’s politik over for Grækenland har spillet fallit" 

(Desværre er Habermas's kritik af den græske regering udeladt!)

 

Saturday, June 20, 2015

Rawls's lectures on Modern Political Philosophy [updated]

Harvard Philosophy Department has uploaded John Rawls' lectures on "Modern Political Philosophy" in the spring semester of 1984 (audio only). 

All eleven lectures are now available:

Lecture 1


Introduction; Fundamental ideas (social cooperation, a well-ordered society).

See Lecture 1 in John Rawls's book "Political Liberalism" (Columbia University Press, 1993), and his "Justice as Fairness" (Belknap Press, 2001), pp. 1-12.

Lecture 2


Fundamental ideas (the basic structure of society, the original position, free and equal persons).

See Lecture 1 in John Rawls's book "Political Liberalism" (Columbia University Press, 1993), and his book "Justice as Fairness" (Belknap Press, 2001), pp. 14-24.

Lecture 3


Fundamental ideas (justification and reflective equilibrium).

See John Rawls's book "Justice as Fairness" (Belknap Press, 2001), pp. 26-32.

Lecture 4


John Locke, part 1

See John Rawls's book "Lectures on the History of Political Philosophy" (ed. by Samuel Freeman, Belknap Press, 2007), pp. 103-137.

Lecture 5


John Locke, part 2

See John Rawls's book "Lectures on the History of Political Philosophy" (ed. by Samuel Freeman, Belknap Press, 2007), pp. 103-137.

Lecture 6


David Hume

See John Rawls's book "Lectures on the History of Political Philosophy" (ed. by Samuel Freeman, Belknap Press, 2007), pp. 159-187.

Lecture 7


Locke and Hume. The principles of justice

See John Rawls's book "Justice as Fairness" (Belknap Press, 2001), part II.

Lecture 8


The principles of justice II

See John Rawls's book "Justice as Fairness" (Belknap Press, 2001), part II.

Lecture 9



Kant's "Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals"

See John Rawls's "Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy" (Harvard University Press, 2000), pp. 143ff.

Lecture 10


Kant's "Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals" II

See John Rawls's "Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy" (Harvard University Press, 2000), pp. 143ff.

Lecture 11


The Original Position 

See John Rawls's "Justice of Fairness" (Belknap Press, 2001), part III, and his lectures on "Kantian Constructivism in Moral Theory", published in his "Collected Papers" (Harvard University Press, 1999) pp. 303-358.

Wednesday, June 17, 2015

Finlayson on Rawls's Criticism of Habermas

James Gordon Finlayson has uploaded a new paper at academia.edu:

"Where the Right Gets in: On Rawls's Criticism of Habermas's Conception of Legitimacy"

James Gordon Finlayson is Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Sussex. He is the author of "Habermas: A Very Short Introduction" (Oxford University Press, 2005) and co-editor (with Fabian Freyenhagen) of "Habermas and Rawls: Disputing the Political" (Routledge, 2011).

Larry Temkin on Egalitarianism (video)

Larry Temkin gave a lecture on "Equality as Comparative Fairness" at the Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm, on May 20, 2015.

You can view a video of his lecture here:


Abstract:
"The goal of this talk is modest. It is simply to help illuminate the nature of egalitarianism. More particularly, I aim to show what certain egalitarians are committed to, and to suggest, though certainly not prove, that equality, as these egalitarians understand it, is an important normative ideal that cannot simply be ignored in moral deliberations.
In doing this, I will distinguish between different kinds of egalitarian positions, and indicate the type of egalitarianism with which I am concerned, which I call equality as comparative fairness. I will discuss the relations between equality, fairness, luck, and responsibility, and defend egalitarianism against rival views that focus on subsistence, sufficiency, or compassion. I will also defend egalitarianism against the leveling down objection, and illustrate egalitarianism’s distinct appeal, in contrast to prioritarianism’s."

See also his paper, forthcoming in "Journal of Applied Ethics".

Larry Temkin is Professor of Philosophy at Rutgers University. He is the author of "Inequality" (Oxford University Press, 1993), and "Rethinking the Good: Moral Ideals and the Nature of Practical Reasoning" (Oxford University Press, 2012).

Friday, May 15, 2015

Updated bibliography on Jürgen Habermas 1992-2015

I have updated my listing of publications on Jürgen Habermas: 

Books and articles on Jürgen Habermas 1992-2015


New and forthcoming in 2015-2016:

Jürgen Habermas: Faktizität und Geltung (Klassiker Auslegen)
PETER KOLLER & CHRISTIAN HIEBAUM (eds.)
(De Gruyter, forthcoming)

Habermas leicht gemacht: Eine Einführung in sein Denken
GEORG RÖMPP
(UTB, forthcoming)

Habermas
KENNETH BAYNES
(Routledge, forthcoming)

Gemeinsame Welt denken: Bedingungen interkultureller Koexistenz bei Jürgen Habermas und Eilert Herms
ANDRÈ MUNZINGER
(Mohr Siebeck, forthcoming)

Rethinking Rawls and Habermas: New Paradigms of Judgment and Justification
GENT CARRABREGU
Political Theory vol. 43 no. 1 (2015), pp. 144-152

Das Dilemma der supranationalen Demokratie
FRITZ W. SCHARPF
Leviathan vol. 43 no. 1 (2015)

Religion und Toleranz von der Aufklärung bis zum postsäkularen Zeitalter: Bayle, Kant und Habermas
RAINER FORST
Postsäkularismus, ed. by Matthias Lutz-Bachmann (Campus Verlag, 2015), pp. 97-134.

A Difference in Kind? Jürgen Habermas and Charles Taylor on Post-secularism
ULRIKE SPOHR
The European Legacy vol. 20 no. 2 (2015), pp. 120-135

Jürgen Habermas im Gespräch mit Joseph Ratzinger
THEODOR EBERT
Aufklärung und Kritik vol. 52 no. 1 (2015)

Political Power and its Pathologies: An Attempt to Reconsider Habermas's Critical Theory of Democracy
FEDERICA GREGORATTO
Constellations, forthcoming.

Judgment and Imagination in Habermas's Theory of Law
THOMAS FOSSEN
Philosophy & Social Criticism, forthcoming.

Discourse Theory's Sociological Claim
DANIEL GAUS
Philosophy & Social Criticism, forthcoming.

Habermas and the Aporia of Translating Religion in Democracy
BADREDINE ARFI
European Journal of Social Theory, forthcoming.

The Latent Cognitive Sociology in Habermas
PIET STRYDOM
Philosophy & Social Criticism vol. 41 no. 3 (2015) pp. 273-291

The Limits of Learning: Habermas' Social Theory and Religion
MAEVE COOKE
European Journal of Philosophy, forthcoming.

The Frankfurt School and the Young Habermas
LUCA CORCHIA
Journal of Classical Sociology vol. 15 no. 2 (2015), pp. 191-208

The Positivist Dispute in German Sociology: A Scientific or a Political Controversy?
HERBERT KEUTH
Journal of Classical Sociology vol. 15 no. 2 (2015), pp. 154-169

Über die unüberwundenen Begründungsdefizite der „Kritischen Theorie“. Von Habermas zu Forst
UWE STEINHOFF
Zeitschrift für kritische Sozialtheorie und Philosophie vol. 2, no. 1 (2015), pp. 67-100.

Autonomy, Natality and Freedom: A Liberal Re-examination of Habermas in the Enhancement Debate
JONATHAN PUGH
Bioethics vol. 29 no. 3 (2015) pp. 145-152 

An Empirically Informed Critique of Habermas's Argument from Human Nature
NICOLAE MORAR
Science and Engineering Ethics vol. 21 no. 1 (2015), pp.95-113 

The Co-originality of Human Rights and Democracy in an International Order
JOHAN KARLSSON SCHAFFER 
International Theory vol. 7 no. 1 (2015), pp. 96-124

Sunday, May 10, 2015

Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights


Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights

Ed. by Rowan Cruft, S. Matthew Liao, and Massimo Renzo

(Oxford University Press, 2015)

720 pages





Contents [preview]

Introduction - Rowan Cruft, S. Matthew Liao & Massimo Renzo 

Part I. Human Rights' Foundations

1. On the Foundations of Human Rights - John Tasioulas 
2. Response to John Tasioulas - Onora O'Neill
3. Human Rights as Fundamental Conditions for a Good Life - S. Matthew Liao 
4. From a Good Life to Human Rights - Rowan Cruft
5. Is Dignity the Foundation of Human Rights? - Jeremy Waldron
6. Human Rights, Natural Rights, and Human Dignity - A. John Simmons
7. Personal Deserts and Human Rights - James W. Nickel
8. Can Moral Desert Qualify or Justify Human Rights? - Zofia Stemplowska 
9. A Social Ontology of Human Rights - Carol Gould 
10. Human Rights, Human Dignity, and Power - Pablo Gilabert 

Part II. Human Rights in Law and Politics

11. Human Rights in the Emerging World Order - Joseph Raz 
12. Joseph Raz on Human Rights: A Critical Appraisal - David Miller 
13. Why International Legal Human Rights? -  Allen Buchanan
14. Human Rights Pragmatism and Human Dignity - David Luban
15. Human Rights and Constitutional Law - Samantha Besson 
16. Specifying Human Rights - Saladin Meckled-Garcia 
17. Rescuing Proportionality - George Letsas 
18. Rescuing Human Rights from Proportionality - Guglielmo Verdirame 

Part III. Canonical and Contested Human Rights

19. Free Speech as an Inverted Right and Democratic Persuasion - Corey Brettschneider 
20. Free Speech and "Democratic Persuasion" - Larry Alexander 
21. Religious Freedom in a Secular World - Lorenzo Zucca 
22. Religious Liberty Conceived as a Human Right - Robert Audi
23. The Right to Security - Liora Lazarus
24. Rights and Security for Human Rights Sceptics - Victor Tadros 
25. Self Determination and the Human Right to Democracy - Thomas Christiano 
26. A Human Right to Democracy? - Fabienne Peter
27. The Content of the Human Right to Health - Jonathan Wolff
28. Do We have a Human Right to the Political Determinants of Health? - Kimberley Brownlee
29. A Moral Inconsistency Argument for a Basic Human Right to Subsistence - Elizabeth Ashford
30. The Force of Subsistence Rights - Charles R. Beitz

Part IV. Human Rights: Concerns and Alternatives

31. The Relativity and Ethnocentricity of Human Rights - James Griffin
32. Human Needs, Human Rights - Massimo Renzo
33. Liberty Rights and the Limits of Liberal Democracy - Jiwei Ci
34. Human Rights without the Human Good? - Simon Hope
35. Care and Human Rights - Virginia Held
36. Care and Human Rights: A Reply to Virginia Held - Susan Mendus
37. Human Rights in Kantian Mode: A Sketch - Katrin Flikschuh 
38. Why there Cannot Be A Truly Kantian Theory of Human Rights - Andrea Sangiovanni