Sunday, September 18, 2016

New book on John Rawls's Political Liberalism

Rawls, Political Liberalism and Reasonable Faith

by Paul Weithman

Cambridge University Press, 2016

270 pages


For over twenty years, Paul Weithman has explored the thought of John Rawls to ask how liberalism can secure the principled allegiance of those people whom Rawls called 'citizens of faith'. This volume brings together ten of his major essays (including one new unpublished essay), which reflect on the task and political character of political philosophy, the ways in which liberalism does and does not privatize religion, the role of liberal legitimacy in Rawls's theory, and the requirements of public reason. The essays reveal Rawls as a thinker deeply engaged with political and existential questions that trouble citizens of faith, and explore how - in firm opposition to political realism - he tries to show that the possibility of liberal democracy and the natural goodness of humanity are objects of reasonable faith. 

Contents [pdf] [preview]


Part I. The Undergraduate Thesis

1. On John Rawls's A Brief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and Faith [pdf]

Part II. From A Theory of Justice to Political Liberalism

2. John Rawls and the Task of Political Philosophy [pdf]
3. Rawlsian Liberalism and the Privatization of Religion [preview]
4. Liberalism and the Political Character of Political Philosophy [pdf]
5. Legitimacy and the Project of Political Liberalism [pdf]

Part III. Public Reason and its Role

6. Citizenship and Public Reason
7. Inclusivism, Stability and Assurance
8. Convergence and Political Autonomy [pdf]

Part IV. Rawls, Realism and Reasonable Faith

9. Law of Peoples and Christian Realism
10. Does Justice as Fairness Have a Religious Aspect? [paper]

Paul Weithman is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame. He is the author of  "Religion and the Obligations of Citizenship" (Cambridge University Press, 2002) and "Why Political Liberalism? On John Rawls's Political Turn" (Oxford University Press, 2010). 

Sunday, September 11, 2016

Habermas Biography by Stefan Müller-Doohm

Habermas: A Biography

by Stefan Müller-Doohm

(Polity Press, 2016)

598 pages


Jürgen Habermas’, wrote the American philosopher Ronald Dworkin on the occasion of the great European thinker’s eightieth birthday, "is not only the world’s most famous living philosopher. Even his fame is famous." Now, after many years of intensive research and in-depth conversations with contemporaries, colleagues and Habermas himself, Stefan Müller-Doohm presents the first comprehensive biography of one of the most important public intellectuals of our time. From his political and philosophical awakening in West Germany to the formative relationships with Adorno and Horkheimer, Müller-Doohm masterfully traces the major forces that shaped Habermas’s intellectual development. He shows how Habermas’s life and work were conditioned by the possibilities offered to his generation in the unique circumstances of regained freedom that characterized postwar Germany. And yet Habermas’s career is fascinating precisely because it amounts to more than a corpus of scholarly work, however original and influential that may be. For here is someone who continually left the protective space of the university in order to assume the role of a participant in controversial public debates - from the significance of the Holocaust to the future of Europe - and in this way sought to influence the development of social and political life in an arena much broader than the academy. The significance and virtuosity of Habermas’s many writings over the years are also fully and expertly documented, ranging from his early work on the public sphere to his more recent writings on communicative action, cosmopolitanism and the postnational condition. What emerges from this biography is a vivid portrait of one of the great public intellectuals of our time - a unique thinker who has made an immense and lasting philosophical contribution but who, when he perceives that society is not living up to its potential for creating free and just conditions for all, becomes one of its most rigorous and persistent critics.

Contents  [pre-view]

Prologue: The Other among his Peers

Part I: Catastrophe and Emancipation
1. Disaster Years as Normality. Childhood and Youth in Gummersbach
2. At University in Göttingen, Zurich and Bonn

Part II: Politics and Critique
3. Education intellectuelle in Café Marx
4. Under the Aegis of Conflicting Personalities: Abendroth and Gadamer
5. Back in Frankfurt. Torn between Academic Work and Political Practice
6. In the Ivory Tower of Social Scientific Research

Part III: Science and Commitment
7. Genius Loci: In Frankfurt for the Third Time
8. New Projects
9. Battles over the Politics of Ideas
10. Against Germanomania and Nationalism

Part IV: Cosmopolitan Society and Justice
11. Critique as a Vocation. The Transition into the Third Millennium
12. The Taming of Capitalism and the Democratization of Europe
13. Philosophy in the Age of Postmetaphysical Modernity
14. Books at an Exhibition

Epilogue: The Inner Compass

Bibliography of Works by Jürgen Habermas

Stefan Müller-Doohm is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of Oldenburg. His other works include "Adorno: A Biography" (Polity Press, 2005). 

The German version of the biography was published by Suhrkamp Verlag in 2014. See my links to reviews of the book.

A review of the English edition:

* "A Lion in Winter" by Peter E. Gordon (The Nation)

Two interviews with Stefan Müller-Doohm on his book:

* "Spuren eines Lebens" [pdf]

* "Ein Leben mit Brüchen"

The biography will also be translated into Spanish, French and Chinese.

Saturday, August 06, 2016

Habermas's lectures on Nietzsche, Heidegger, Bataille, and Foucault (1984)

Recordings of Jürgen Habermas's five Messenger Lectures at Cornell University in September 1984:

The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity - Hegel and the Young Hegelians
(Lecture I + discussion, September 6, 1984)

See: Jürgen Habermas - The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity (1990), Chapter 1 + 3.

The Entry into Postmodernity - Nietzsche (The Romantic vs. The Dionysian)
(Lecture II + discussion, September 7, 1984)

See: Jürgen Habermas - The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity (1990), Chapter 4. 

Heidegger's Overcoming of Occidental Rationalism 
(Lecture III, September 10, 1984)

See: Jürgen Habermas - The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity (1990), Chapter 6.

Bataille: Between Eroticism and Economy of Nature 
(Lecture IV + discussion, September 11, 1984)

See: Jürgen Habermas - The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity (1990), Chapter 8. 

Foucault's Unmasking of the Human Sciences 
(Lecture V + discussion, September 12, 1984)

See: Jürgen Habermas - The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity (1990), Chapter 9. 

Monday, August 01, 2016

Neues Buch über Habermas's "Faktizität und Geltung"

Jürgen Habermas: Faktizität und Geltung

(Klassiker Auslegen, Band 62) 

Hrsg. von Peter Koller & Christian Hiebaum

(De Gruyter, 2016)

217 S.


Faktizität und Geltung (1992) gehört zu den Hauptwerken von Jürgen Habermas. Er leistet darin eine innovative Begründung der Prinzipen des demokratischen Rechtsstatts, präsentiert zugleich aber auch eine Summe seines sozialtheoretischen und ethischen Denkens (Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns und Diskursethik). Dieser Band erschließt das Werk, die einzelnen Kapitel werden von renommierten Autoren resümiert, interpretiert und kritisch diskutiert.

Between Facts and Norms is one of Jürgen Habermas’s principal works. In it, he proposes an innovative justification for the principles of the democratic constitutional state, and, at the same time, sums up his thinking on social theory and ethics (i.e. the theory of communicative action and discourse ethics). This volume engages in a close reading of the work, and each chapter is summarized, interpreted, and critiqued by renowned authors.

Inhalt [preview]

Einführung - Peter Koller & Christian Hiebaum

1. Recht als Kategorie der Vermittlung zwischen Faktizität und Geltung - Peter Koller
2. Soziologische Rechts- und philosophische Gerechtigkeitskonzepte - Otfried Höffe
3. Zur Rekonstruktion des Rechts (1): Das System der Rechte - Klaus Günther
4. Zur Rekonstruktion des Rechts (2): Die Prinzipien des Rechtsstaates - Alexander Somek
5. Unbestimmtheit des Rechts und Rationalität der Rechtsprechung - Robert Alexy
6. Justiz und Gesetzgebung. Zur Rolle und Legitimität der Verfassungsrechtsprechung - Dieter Grimm
7. Deliberative Politik – ein Verfahrensbegriff der Demokratie - Hauke Brunkhorst
8. Zur Rolle von Zivilgesellschaft und politischer Öffentlichkeit - Regina Kreide
9. Paradigmen des Rechts - Elisabeth Holzleithner  

Anhang I. Recht und Moral (Tanner Lectures 1986) - Christian Hiebaum
Anhang II und III. Volkssouveränität als Verfahren (1988) Staatsbürgerschaft und nationale Identität (1990) - Hasso Hofmann

Thursday, July 07, 2016

Habermas on Brexit and the future of Europe [updated]

A new interview with Jürgen Habermas in "Die Zeit" (July 7, 2016)

"Die Spieler treten ab" [full text now online]

An English translation is available here: "The Players Resign - Core Europe to the Rescue"

Excerpts from the German version:

DIE ZEIT: Herr Habermas, hätten Sie den Brexit jemals für möglich gehalten? Was empfanden Sie, als Sie vom Erfolg der Leave-Kampagne erfuhren?

HABERMAS: Ich hatte nicht damit gerechnet, dass der Populismus den Kapitalismus in dessen Ursprungsland schlagen würde. Angesichts der existenziellen Bedeutung des Bankensektors für Grossbritannien und im Hinblick auf die Medienmacht und politische Durchsetzungsfähigkeit der City of London war es unwahrscheinlich, dass sich Identitätsfragen gegen Interesselagen durchsetzen würden. (......)

Die Briten haben eine andere Geschichte im Rücken als der Kontinent. Das politische Bewusstsein einer Grossmacht, die im 20. Jahrhundert zweimal siegreich war, aber weltpolitisch im Abstieg begriffen ist, arrangiert sich mit der veränderten Lage nicht ohne Verzögerung. Mit diesem nationalen Selbstverständnis ist Grossbritannien in eine missliche Situation geraten, nachdem es 1973 allein aus ökonomischen Gründen der Europäischen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft beigetreten war. (......)

Die Briten hatten eine entschieden marktliberale Vorstellung von der EU als einer Freihandelszone, und die fand Ausdruck in einer Politik der Erweitung der EU ohne gleichzeitige Vertiefung der Kooperation. Die ausschlisslich instrumentelle Einstellung der politischen Eliten gegenüber der EU hat sich noch im Wahlkampf des Remain-Lagers widergespiegelt. (......)

DIE ZEIT: Warum steht plötzlich nationale Identität gegen europäische Integration? Haben die Europapolitiker die Sprengkraft des nationalen und kulturellen Eigensinns unterschätzt?

HABERMAS: (......) Nicht nur das gegensätzliche Wahlverhalten auf dem Land und in den Städten, auch die geografische Verteilung der Exit-Stimmen (.....) sprechen für die sozialen und wirtschaftlichen Ursachen des Brexit. Die Wahrnehmung der drastisch gewachsenen sozialen Ungleichheit und das Gefühl der Ohnmacht, dass die eigenen Interessen auf der politischen Ebene nicht mehr repräsentiert werden, schaffen den Motivationshintergrund für die Mobilisierung gegen Fremde, die Abkehr von Europa, den Hass auf Brüssel. Für eine verunsicherte Alltagswelt bilden der "nationale und kulturellen Eigensinn", wie Sie sagen, stabilisierende Pfeiler.  

DIE ZEIT: Sind es wirklich nur soziale Fragen? Es gibt doch nachgerade einen historischen Trend zu nationaler Selbsthilfe und die Absage an Kooperation. Supranationalität bedeutet für die Bürger Kontrolverlust. Sie glauben: Nur die Nation sei der Fels, auf den sie bauen können. Beweist das nicht, dass die Transformation von nationaler in transnationale Demokratie gescheitert ist"

HABERMAS: Ein Versuch, den man gar nicht erst unternimmt, kann nicht gescheitert sein. Gewiss, der Ruf nach "Take back control", der ja im britischen Wahlkamp eine Rolle gespielt hat, ist ein Symptom, das man ernst nehmen muss. Dem Beobachter hat sich die offensichtliche Irrationalität nicht nur des Ergebnisses dieser Wahl, sondern des Wahlkampfes selber aufgedrängt. Auch auf dem Kontinent nehmen die Hasskampagnen zu. Die Sozialpathologischen Züge einer politisch enthemmten Aggresivität deuten darauf hin, dass die alles durchdringenden systemischen Zwänge einer ungesteuert ökonomisch und digital zusammenwachsenden Weltgesellschaft die Formen der sozialen Integration überfordern, die im Nationalstaat demokratisch eingespielt waren. Das löst Regressionen aus. (......)

Eine transnationalisierung der Demokratie wäre (.....) die richtige Antwort. Auf andere Weise ist in einer hoch interdependenten Weltgesellschaft der beklagte und tatsächliche eingetretene Kontrollverlust, den die Bürgern empfinden, nicht wettzumachen. (.....)

DIE ZEIT: Wie kann man sich eine Vertiefung der Union vorstellen, ohne dass die Bürger einen weiteren demokratischen Kontrolverlust fürchten müssen? (......)

HABERMAS: Die Einberufung eines Konvents, der zu grossen Vertragsänderungen und Referenden führen müsste, käme erst infrage, wenn EU ihre dringendsten Probleme wahrnehmbar und auf überzeugende Weise angepackt hat. Die nach wie vor ungelöste Euro-krise, das langfristige Flüchtlingsproblem und die aktuellen Sicherheitsfragen werden jetzt als drängende Probleme genannt. Aber schon deren Beschreibung ist in der kakofonen Runde der 27 Mitglieder des Europäischen Rates nicht konsensfähig. Kompromisse sind nur unter kompromissbereiten Partnern möglich, und dafür dürfen die Interesselagen nicht zu weit auseinandergehen. Dieses Mindestmass an Interessekonvergenz ist bestenfalls von den Mitgliedern der Europäischen Währungsgemeinschaft zu erwarten. Das Krisenschicksal der gemeinsamen Währung, dessen Ursachen von der Wissenschaft übrigens gut analysiert worden sind, kettet dieser Länder schon seit Jahren, wenn auch auf asymmetrische Weise, eng aneinander. Deshalb bietet sich die Euro-Zone als natürliche Definition für den gegebenen Umfang eines künftigen Kerneuropas an. Wenn diese Länder den politischen Willen hätten, würde der in den Verträgen vorgesehene Grundsatz der "Engeren Zusammenarbeit" die ersten Schritte zur Ausdifferenzierung eines solchen Kerns erlauben - auch die längst überfällige Bildung eines Pendants zur Euro-Gruppe des Rates innerhalb des Europäischen Parlamentes.

Saturday, July 02, 2016

Jürgen Habermas and the European Economic Crisis

Jürgen Habermas and the European Economic Crisis
Cosmopolitanism Reconsidered

Ed. Gaspare M. Genna, Thomas O. Haakenson & Ian W. Wilson

(Routledge, 2016)

224 pages


The European Union entered into an economic crisis in late 2009 that was sparked by bank bailouts and led to large, unsustainable, sovereign debt. The crisis was European in scale, but hit some countries in the Eurozone harder than others. Despite the plethora of writings devoted to the economic crisis in Europe, present understandings of how the political decisions would influence the integration project continue to remain vague. What does it actually mean to be European? Is Europe still a collection of peoples that rallied together during good times and then retreat to nationalism when challenges appear? Or has Europe adopted a common identity that would foster solidarity during hard times?

This book provides its reader with a fresh perspective on the importance identity has on the functioning of the European Union as exemplified in Jürgen Habermas’ seminal text, ‘The Crisis of the European Union: A Response’. Rather than exploring the causes of the crisis, the contributors examine the current state of European identity to determine the likelihood of implementing Habermas’ suggestions.

Contents  [preview]

Introduction - Gaspare M. Genna & Ian W. Wilson

Part I: Foundations

1. Democracy as Ideal and Practice: Historicizing The Crisis of the European Union - Christian Bailey
2. Habermas on Human Dignity as the Origin of Human Rights and Egalitarian, Utopian Thinking - Jennifer Fredette

Part II: Values

3. Cosmopolitanism, Trust, and Support for European Integration - Gaspare M. Genna
4. European Reform from the Bottom Up? The Presence and Effects of Cosmopolitan Values in Germany - Aubrey Westfall

Part III: Tools

5. Reason, Faith, and Europe: Two German Perspectives What is Europe? -James M. Skidmore
6. Cosmopolitan Reflections: Jürgen Habermas and W. G. Sebald - Ian W. Wilson

Part IV: Institutions

7. Educating the European Union: Internationalization through Integration - Thomas O. Haakenson
8. European Integration and Economic Interests - Marcella Myer
9. Does German Austerity Travel? - David O. Rossbach
10. On the Pouvoir Constituent of the European Union - Erik O. Eriksen

Conclusion - Gaspare M. Genna & W. Wilson 

Tuesday, June 21, 2016

In Defense of the Democratic Rule of Law in Brazil

Jürgen Habermas, Axel Honneth, Charles Taylor, Nancy Fraser, Rainer Forst, Rahel Jaeggi and many others have signed a 

Manifesto in Defense of the Democratic Rule of Law in Brazil

Many of the philosophers signed the manifesto at a conference in Prague on "Philosophy and Social Science", May 18-22, 2016.

Monday, June 13, 2016

Introduction to Habermas in Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

A new article by Max Cherem in "Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy" (IEP) gives a good introduction to the main themes in Jürgen Habermas's works:

"Jürgen Habermas"

Friday, June 10, 2016

UCD Ulysses Metal awarded to Axel Honneth

Professor Axel Honneth received the UCD Ulysses Medal at a special ceremony on June 7, 2016, at the University College Dublin.

The UCD Ulysses Medal is the highest honour that University College Dublin can bestow. It was inaugurated in 2005, as part of the university’s sesquicentennial celebrations, to highlight the ‘creative brilliance’ of UCD alumnus James Joyce. It is awarded to individuals whose work has made an outstanding global contribution.

Honneth gave a lecture on "Social Freedom, Morality, and Markets"

Previous recipients of the Ulysses Medal include: Hilary Putnam, Jürgen Habermas, Bill Clinton, and Seamus Heaney.

On the occasion of the award of the Ulysses Medal to Professor Axel Honneth a conference on "Freedom Today" took place in Dublin. Speakers included: Frederick Neuhouser, Beate Rössler, Regina Kreide, Kevin Olson, Robin Celikates, and Christopher Zurn.

Sunday, May 15, 2016

Papers on "The Legacy of Ronald Dworkin"

The Legacy of Ronald Dworkin

Ed. by Wil Waluchow & Stefan Sciaraffa

(Oxford University Press, 2016)

456 pages


This book assembles leading legal, political, and moral philosophers to examine the legacy of the work of Ronald Dworkin. They provide the most comprehensive critical treatment of Dworkin's accomplishments focusing on his work in all branches of philosophy, including his theory of value, political philosophy, philosophy of international law, and legal philosophy.

The book's organizing principle and theme reflect Dworkin's self-conception as a builder of a unified theory of value, and the broad outlines of his system can be found throughout the book. The first section addresses the most abstract and general aspect of Dworkin's work—the unity of value thesis. The second section explores Dworkin's contributions to political philosophy, and discusses a number of political concepts including authority, civil disobedience, the legitimacy of states and the international legal system, distributive justice, collective responsibility, and Dworkin's master value of dignity and the associated values of equal concern and respect. The third section addresses various aspects of Dworkin's general theory of law. The fourth and final section comprises accounts of the structure and defining values of discrete areas of law

The essays are based on papers presented at a conference on "The Legacy of Ronald Dworkin", May 30 - June 1, 2014 , at the McMaster University, Ontario, Canada.

Contents [preview]

Editors' Introduction

Part I: The Unity of Value

1. A Hedgehog's Unity of Value - Joseph Raz

Part II: Political Values: Legitimacy, Authority, and Collective Responsibility

2. Political Resistance for Hedgehogs - Candice Delmas
3. Ronald Dworkin, State Consent and Progressive Cosmopolitanism - Thomas Christiano
4. To Fill or Not To Fill Individual Responsibility Gaps? - François Tanguay-Renaud
5. Inheritance and Hypothetical Insurance - Daniel Halliday

Part III: General Jurisprudence: Contesting the Unity of Law and Value

6. Putting Law in Its Place - Lawrence G. Sager
7. Dworkin and Unjust Law - David Dyzenhaus
8. The Grounds of Law - Luís Duarte d'Almeida
9. Immodesty in Dworkin's 'Third' Theory - Kenneth Einar Himma
10. Imperialism and Importance in Dworkin's Jurisprudence - Michael Giudice
11. A Theory of Legal Obligation - Christopher Essert

Part IV: Value in Law

12. Originalism and Constructive Interpretation - David O. Brink
13. Was Dworkin an Originalist? - Larry Alexander
14. The Moral Reading of Constitutions - Connie S. Rosati
15. Authority, Intention and Interpretation - Aditi Bagchi
16. Concern and Respect in Procedural Law - Hamish Stewart

See also some of my previous posts on Ronald Dworkin:

* In Memorial Ronald Dworkin - Harvard Law Review (December 2013).

* Jeremy Waldron's tribute to Ronald Dworkin

* Papers on Ronald Dworkin's "Justice for Hedgehogs"

Saturday, May 14, 2016

Axel Honneth/Jacques Rancière - A Critical Encounter

Recognition or Disagreement
A Critical Encounter on the Politics of Freedom, Equality, and Identity

By Axel Honneth & Jacques Rancière

Edited by Jean-Philippe Deranty & Katia Genel 

(Columbia University Press, 2016)

240 pages


Axel Honneth is best known for his critique of modern society centered on a concept of recognition. Jacques Rancière has advanced an influential theory of modern politics based on disagreement. Underpinning their thought is a concern for the logics of exclusion and domination that structure contemporary societies. In a rare dialogue, these two philosophers explore the affinities and tensions between their perspectives to provoke new ideas for social and political change.

Honneth sees modern society as a field in which the logic of recognition provides individuals with increasing possibilities for freedom and is a constant catalyst for transformation. Rancière sees the social as a policing order and the political as a force that must radically assert equality. Honneth claims Rancière's conception of the political lies outside of actual historical societies and involves a problematic desire for egalitarianism. Rancière argues that Honneth's theory of recognition relies on an overly substantial conception of identity and subjectivity. While impassioned, their exchange seeks to advance critical theory's political project by reconciling the rift between German and French post-Marxist traditions and proposing new frameworks for justice.

Contents [preview]

Part I. Setting the Stage

1. Jacques Rancière and Axel Honneth - Katia Genel
2. Between Honneth and Rancière - Jean-Philippe Deranty

Part II. A Critical Encounter

3. Critical Questions: On the Theory of Recognition - Jacques Rancière
4. Remarks on the Philosophical Approach of Jacques Rancière - Axel Honneth
5. A Critical Discussion

Part III. The Method of Critical Theory: Propositions

6. The Method of Equality [lecture in English, audio] - Jacques Rancière
7. Of the Poverty of Our Liberty [lecture in German, audio] - Axel Honneth

Thursday, May 12, 2016

New Book: Philosophy and Political Engagement

Philosophy and Political Engagement
Reflection in the Public Sphere

Ed. by Allyn Fives & Keith Breen

(Palgrave, 2016)

275 pages


Do philosophers have a responsibility to their society that is distinct from their responsibility to it as citizens? This edited volume explores both what type of contribution philosophy can make and what type of reasoning is appropriate when addressing public matters now. These questions are posed by leading international scholars working in the fields of moral and political philosophy. Each contribution also investigates the central issue of how to combine critical, rational analysis with a commitment to politically relevant public engagement. The contributions to this volume analyse issues raised in practical ethics, including abortion, embryology, and assisted suicide. They consider the role of ethical commitment in the philosophical analysis of contemporary political issues, and engage with matters of public policy such as poverty, the arts, meaningful work, as well as the evidence base for policy. They also examine the normative legitimacy of power, including the use of violence.

This volume of essays is dedicated to Joseph Mahon.

Contents [pdf] [preview]

1. Introduction - Allyn Fives & Keith Breen

Part One. Practical Ethics

2. The Role of Philosophy in Public Matters - Allyn Fives
3. On Philosophy’s Contribution to Public Matters [Abstract] - Joseph Mahon
4. Abortion and the Right to Not Be Pregnant [Abstract] - James Edwin Mahon
5. Acts, Omissions, and Assisted Death [Abstract] - Richard Hull & Annie McKeown O'Donovan 

Part Two. Ethical Commitment and Political Engagement

6. Writing as Social Disclosure: A Hundred Years Ago and Now [Abstract] - Alasdair MacIntyre
7. Ethics, Markets, and Cultural Goods [Abstract] - Russell Keat
8. In Defence of Meaningful Work as a Public Policy Concern [Abstract] - Keith Breen
9. Working from Both Ends: The Dual Role of Philosophy in Research Ethics - Allyn Fives

Part Three. The Justification of Power and Resistance

10. Three Mistakes About Democracy - Philip Pettit
11. Karl Marx After a Century and a Half [Abstract] - Allen W. Wood
12. Neither Victims nor Executioners: Camus as Public Intellectual [Abstract] - John Foley
13. Violence and Responsibility [Abstract] - Felix Murchadha