Thursday, July 08, 2021

Dutch articles on “Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie”

The new issue of the Dutch journal “Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte” (vol. 113, issue 2) features articles on Jürgen Habermas’ “Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie” (2019):

* René Gabriëls & Ronald Tinnevelt – ”De genese van redelijke vrijheid. Habermas over geloven en weten”

* Guido Vanheeswijck – "Over de rol van filosofie in de post-seculiere samenleving"

English abstract: Faith and knowledge’ in Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie. On the Role of Philosophy in Post-Secular Society

This article focuses on three aspects that might clarify the quintessence of Habermas’ position regarding the relation between faith and knowledge in his book, Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie. First, a concise overview is given of the role of this specific theme in Habermas’ oeuvre as a whole (from his earliest to his later writings), that may help to illuminate why his so-called shift with regard to the relation between faith and knowledge is in need of modification. Subsequently, the question is raised as to the possible role philosophy may still play for Habermas in the contemporary climate of so-called post-secular thought. Finally, some critical remarks are formulated concerning his genealogical reconstruction, in particular his treatment of respectively the axial period, the double face of nominalism and the specific status of a philosophical, conceptual translation of religious contents.

*Pieter Pekelharing  - ”Westerse filosofie en de koorddans tussen geloof en weten”

English abstract: Western philosophy and the tightrope between faith and knowledge

In Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie (2019), Habermas develops a new view of the history of philosophy. Dating philosophy back to the axial age, he presents its history as the result of a collective learning process, spanning a period of three millennia. In this new approach he highlights the crucial importance of faith and religion which resulted in a specific constellation of belief and knowledge that, though unique to the West, has universal import, and led to greater ‘reasonable freedom (Vernüftige Freiheit). In Habermas’ view The West’s Judeo-Christian heritage was not a passing phase in the emergence of modern thought and politics, but contributed its essential core. Though sympathetic to the idea of learning processes spanning many centuries, one may ask whether reasoning and learning processes always tend to lead, as Habermas claims, in the direction of greater freedom instead of its opposite. In this respect Habermas could have learnt more from the sceptical tradition in philosophy and its persistent interest in the various ways in which reasoning processes are non-cognitively embedded in human nature and society and influence the direction these processes take.

* Maria Kardaun – “Omnis determinatio est negation”

English abstract: Omnis Determinatio est Negatio. On Habermas, Myth, and Truth

With his monumental genealogy of Western philosophy Jürgen Habermas delivers an achievement that is worthy of great praise. In carefully constructed arguments he presents in detail the close connection between, and the mutual indebtedness of, religion and philosophy as they developed in the West for more than two millennia. With regard to the current state of affairs he acknowledges that we should continue to engage with subjects such as purpose, meaningfulness, and how to behave. He proposes that where religion is withdrawing, philosophy should take its place. In spite of its great merits, there are some fundamental shortcomings in the overall image Habermas wishes to convey. By suggesting that Western religion and philosophy have been the major driving forces not only of cognitive but also of ethical progress, he underestimates the moral value of pre-Socratic and other holistic world views that radically differ from the idiosyncratic Western one. For example, he perceives Homer’s mythological thinking as nothing but a primitive state of mind against which the ethical and intellectual progress of later developments could come to the fore. This paper proposes that we should give much more weight to the difference between the ‘cognitive’ and the ‘ethical’ than Habermas does. In principle, as a form of argumentative reasoning, philosophy belongs to the (cognitive) domain of truth. As such, it is not a suitable successor to religion. On the other hand, provided they operate primarily within their own domain – which is the domain of meaningfulness –, religion (in whatever form), literature and the arts, ancient myth, friendship, love, and humour may still be best equipped to sharpen our sense of justice and help us deal with feelings of moral disorientation and fragmentation.

* Joke Spruyt – “Logica modernorum. Een kanttekening bij Habermas’ portret van de middeleeuwse wijsbegeerte”

English abstract: Logica modernorum. A critical note on Habermas’s portrait of medieval philosophy

In his monumental history of philosophy, the eminent scholar Jürgen Habermas has managed to provide us with a thorough and very nuanced overview of thousands of years of western thought. The famous philosopher paints an impressive picture of the vicissitudes of the modernisation processes featuring in the history of western philosophy. The Leitmotiv of Habermas’s narrative is the way in which throughout history philosophy dealt with the question concerning the relationship between faith and reason. When it comes to the Middle Ages, it is not surprising that Habermas should focus on the opposition between Thomas Aquinas and William of Ockham. However, by confining himself to the concepts of fides and ratio, he completely overlooks thirteenth-century developments in the domain of logic. To take note of these developments is fundamental to understand the process of modernisation in philosophy. The aim of this paper is to fill in the gap, by concentrating on thirteenth-century discussions of necessity and (logical) consequences.

* Henning Tegtmeyer – “Habermas over genealogie, metafysica en godsdienst”

English abstract: Habermas on genealogy, metaphysics and religion

Habermas’s impressive history of philosophy presents itself both as a comprehensive account of the history of Western philosophy from its beginning to the 19th century and as a genealogy of post-metaphysical thinking. In this paper I argue that this twofold goal creates a serious methodological problem. I also find Habermas’s understanding of metaphysics unclear and partly misguided. If that is correct it has consequences not only for the very notion of post-metaphysical thinking but also for the understanding of the dialogue between philosophy, religion, and modern secular society that Habermas advocates.

* Geert Van Eekert – “Pas de deux met een theologische erfenis”

English abstract: Pas de deux with a theological legacy. Jürgen Habermas on David Hume and Immanuel Kant

In his latest opus magnum, Jürgen Habermas reconsiders the history of philosophy from a peculiar perspective: the true and unique nature of philosophy is shown to have been given shape in philosophy’s dispute with Christian theology. This article reviews Habermas’ chapter on the Enlightenment, in which Habermas casts David Hume and Immanuel Kant dancing their own pas de deux with that theological legacy. After having sketched the historical scripts in which Hume and Kant are involved by Habermas, I will critically assess the author’s claim that while Hume ends up refusing the dance and (hence) betraying (enlightened) philosophy’s nature, Kant accepts and transforms the heritage, yet ends up failing to give his pas de deux a genuine modern and enlightened twist.

* Paul Cobben – ”Habermas’ receptie van het denken van Hegel en Marx in Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie”

English abstract: Habermas’s reception of Hegel’s and Marx’s thinking in Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie

According to Habermas, Hegel has contributed to the development of the paradigm of speech-philosophy insofar as he transformed Kant’s noumenal subject into a free subject that is related to the lifeworld. By interpreting the unity of the lifeworld by means of a philosophical conceptualization of the religious cultus, however, he re-introduces a metaphysical approach in philosophy. Habermas praises Marx because he made this metaphysical approach of the lifeworld undone. His economic determinism, however, cannot be reconciled with the free subject. Habermas’s Hegel-reception is criticized because it misunderstands Hegel’s attempt to conceptualize why it is possible at all to realize freedom in the lifeworld; his Marx-reception is criticized because it ignores that freedom for Marx is only the result of the communist revolution.

See also my links to reviews of Habermas's "Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophy".

Tuesday, July 06, 2021

Rudolf Langthaler: Kritische Anmerkungen zu Habermas’ Kritik der kantischen Religionsphilosophie

Führt Moral unumgänglich zur Religion?

Zur Kritik der Kantischen Religionsphilosophie bei Jürgen Habermas - eine Entgegnung

von Rudolf Langthaler

(Verlag Karl Alber, 2021)

494 Seiten


Im Kontext des Themas „Nachmetaphysisches Denken und Religion“ hat Jürgen Habermas auch der kantischen Religionsphilosophie wiederholt besondere Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet und darin geradezu eine „Wegscheide nachmetaphysischen Denkens“ erkannt. Seine Interpretation und Kritik der Kantischen Religionsphilosophie, die vor allem das Verhältnis von „Glauben und Wissen“ umkreist, ist Thema des Buches. Im ersten Teil sollen jene grundlegenden begrifflichen Differenzierungen der kantischen Moraltheorie, seiner Ethik und Religionsphilosophie vergegenwärtigt werden, die in Habermas‘ Kant-Kritik eine besondere Rolle spielen. Im zweiten Teil wird Habermas‘ Interpretation und Kritik an Kants Religionsphilosophie ausführlich und textnah behandelt. Alle einschlägigen Stellungnahmen Habermas‘ zu Kant sollen dabei ausführlich berücksichtigt werden.

"Gewidmet ist dieses Buch Jürgen Habermas: In großer Bewunderung für sein überaus beeindruckendes wissenschaftliches Lebenswerk sowie für sein öffentliches Engagement als kritischer "zeutdiagnostischer" Intellektueller - jedoch in ehrerbietendem Widerspruch mit Blick auf Kant" [S. 24] 

Inhalt [Leseprobe]


I. Teil: Zu den von Habermas kritisierten religionsphilosophischen Lehrstücken Kants

1. Das »höchste Gut« innerhalb der »Ordnung der Begriffe von der Willensbestimmung«

2. Die »strengste Forderung der praktischen Vernunft« als die (auf das »höchste [vollendete] Gut« bezogene) »moralisch konsequente Denkungsart«: Eine »mit der Pflicht als Bedürfnis verbundene [!] Notwendigkeit, die Möglichkeit dieses höchsten Guts vorauszusetzen«

3. Kants Unterscheidung zwischen »moralischer« und »moralisch konsequenter Denkungsart« und das daraus erwach(s)ende »moralisch gewirkte Bedürfnis« der »fragenden Vernunft«. Das in dem »moralischen Wunsch« leitende »Interesse der Vernunft an sich selbst«

4. Die im Kontext der »moralisch konsequenten Denkungsart« erfolgte Begründung der »Vernunftpostulate«: Die moralisch notwendige »Annehmung« des Satzes, »dass ein Gott sei«

5. Das in der »moralisch konsequenten Denkungsart« bestimmende »Bedürfnis der fragenden Vernunft« im Kontext der »authentischen Theodizee« und Kants Idee der »Strafwürdigkeit«

II. Teil: Habermas versus Kant – Kant versus Habermas: Kritische Anmerkungen zu Habermas’ Kritik der kantischen Religionsphilosophie

Vorbemerkung: Von Habermas wiederholt kritisierte »metaphysische Hintergrundannahmen« der kantischen Postulatenlehre. »Konkretisierung der Transzendentalität« statt »Detranszendentalisierung«?

1. Zu Habermas’ Kritik an dem von Kant angeblich unausgewiesenen »transzendentalen Faktum der Vernunft«: Die Problematisierung desselben als ein »transzendentales Faktum der Pflicht«

2. Habermas’ Kritik an den kantischen »Vernunftpostulaten« und an der – moralisch notwendigen – Verankerung der postulatorischen »Annehmung« des Satzes, »dass ein Gott sei«

3. Habermas’ grundlegender Einwand: Die gebotene »Beförderung des höchsten Gutes« – eine »zusätzliche« »problematische«, weil »überschwängliche« »Superpflicht«?

4. Eine weitreichende Konsequenz aus Habermas’ verkürzter Wahrnehmung dieser »Willensbestimmung von besonderer Art«

5. Ein Blick auf Habermas’ Bezugnahme auf Kants Geschichtsphilosophie

6. Zu Habermas’ Interpretation der kantischen »Reich Gottes«-Idee (a.) und des »ethisch gemeinen Wesens« (b.); der dieses »ethische Gemeinwesen« beseelende »Geist« (c.)


* * *

"Führt Kant den Vernunftglauben in der Absicht ein, die Motivationsschwäche der abstrakten Vernunftmoral auszugleichen und »der moralischen Denkungsart« eine »feste Beharrlichkeit« zu sichern? Oder dient die derart erweiterte Moraltheorie ihrerseits zur Begründung einer christlichen Glaubenssubstanz, die mit den Verheißungen sowohl der Unsterblichkeit der individuellen Seele wie auch der rettenden Gerechtigkeit eines in die Geschicke der Welt eingreifenden Gottes über den kargen Aussage gehalt des zeitgenössischen Deismus hinausschießt? Dieser zweiten Interpretationslinie folgt Rudolf Langthaler, der als ein hervorragender, in die kleinsten Textfalten sensibel eindringender Kenner der kantischen Philosophie ausgewiesen ist, in einer eindringlichen Studie mit Nachdruck [Rudolf Langthaler, Geschichte, Ethik und Religion im Anschluss an Kant (Berlin, 2014)]. In der Art eines an Benjamin und Adorno geschulten close reading entfaltet er eine nuancenreiche »Perspektive zwischen skeptischer Hoffnungslosigkeit und dogmatischem Trotz«; die Lesart, die er begründet, soll dem »Bedürfnis der Vernunft«, das durch eine spröde Lektüre der Kantischen Moralphilosophie unbefriedigt bleibt, Genugtuung verschaffen. (.....)"

(Jürgen Habermas, Auch Eine Geschichte der Philosophie (Berlin, 2019), Bd. II, S. 353-354.)

* * *

Siehe auch:

Rudolf Langthaler - Nachmetaphysisches Denken? Kritische Anfragen an Jürgen Habermas (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1997)

Sunday, June 27, 2021

New Book: Radical Proceduralism

Radical Proceduralism

Democracy from Philosophical Principles to Political Institutions

by Dannica Fleuß

(Bingley: Emerald, 2021)

236 pages


Democratic politics depend on citizen participation, trust and support. While this support in democratic institutions and political elites is declining, public and scholarly discourse frequently suggests counteracting the challenge by strengthening the role of experts in political decision-making, yet such reform proposals convey a paternalistic threat that contravenes fundamental democratic principles.

Proposing an alternative, 'radical proceduralist' understanding of democratic legitimacy and institutional reform, Radical Proceduralism argues that there is no such thing as 'political truth' or 'correctness' that could justify experts wielding political power. Rather, the only criterion for democratic legitimacy is the fair and equal inclusion of all affected citizens.

Radical Proceduralism bridges the gap between political philosophy and practical institutional experimentation asking us to bring citizens back in and to engage them in a dialogue about 'the rules of the democratic game' and proposing institutional devices that figure as 'conversation starters' and facilitate such dialogues.

Contents [pdf] [Preview]

Introduction: Democratic Legitimacy, Democratic Crises, Everyday (Political) Practice

1. Bridging the Gap between Principles and Institutions: Meta-theoretical and Methodological Considerations

2. Procedure, Substance, Democratic Legitimacy: A Framework for the Debate

3. Two Forms of Proceduralism: Rawls’s and Habermas’s Theories of Democratic Legitimacy

4. Normative Proceduralism and Its Limitations in “Post-metaphysical” Political Theory

5. Radical Proceduralist Ideals: A Discursive Account

6. Institutional Designs as Conversation Starters: Ask Citizens, Not Philosophers!

7. Conclusion: Democratic Institutions for Radical Proceduralists and Other Citizens

Dannica Fleuß is a Research Fellow at Helmut-Schmidt-University Hamburg and a Research Associate at the Center for Deliberative Democracy and Global Governance. 

Her dissertation from 2016 is available here: "Prozeduren, Rechte, Demokratie. Das legitimatorische Potential von Verfahren für politische Systeme" [pdf]

Friday, June 25, 2021

Interview with Rainer Forst

 Interview with Rainer Forst in "Frankfurter Rundschau", June 25, 2021:

"Politik ohne Vernunft führt ins Verderben"

Thursday, June 24, 2021

Fabienne Peter on Political Legitimacy

Fabienne Peter (Warwick) will give the 2021 Wittgenstein Lectures (University of Bayreuth) via Zoom on June 28 - July 2:

The Grounds of Political Legitimacy

Lecture 1: What Makes Political Decisions Legitimate?

Lecture 2: Why Democracy?

Lecture 3: The Value of Political Deliberation

Lecture 4: Norms of Political Deliberation

Lecture 5: Is Political Deference Ever Warranted? 

More information here.

Fabienne Peter is the author of "Democratic Legitimacy" (Routledge, 2008).

Saturday, June 12, 2021

Axel Honneth's Benjamin Lectures

On June 16, 17 & 18, 2021, Axel Honneth will give the Benjamin Lectures on "Der arbeitende Souverän. Eine demokratische Theorie der Arbeitsteilung“ at the open-air cinema Hasenheide, Neukölln, Berlin.

Lecture 1: "Die Arbeit (in) der Demokratie"

* Commentary: Ruth Yeoman (University of Oxford)

Lecture 2: "Die Wirklichkeit der gesellschaftlichen Arbeit"

* Commentary: Christine Wimbauer (Humboldt University, Berlin)

Lecture 3: "Der Kampf um die gesellschaftliche Arbeit"

* Commentary: Andrea Komlosy (University of Vienna)

A summary of Honneth's lectures is published in "taz am Wochenende" (June 12, 2021):Axel Honneth - "Der arbeitende Souverän".

An interview with Honneth: „Alternativen zur Lohnarbeit schaffen“ (Der Tagesspiegel, June 11, 2021).

Saturday, May 29, 2021

Thomas Nagel on human rights and moral knowledge

In "London Review of Books" (June 3, 2021), Thomas Nagel revisits the old debate about consequentialist vs. deontological theories of morality:

"Types of Intuition. Thomas Nagel on human rights and moral knowledge"

"In some sense the moral point of view requires putting oneself in everyone else’s shoes and taking the separate point of view of each individual into account in deciding what to do. The question is: how?"

“The question I am asking is whether, looking at ourselves from outside, we should come to view our attachment to rights and deontology as an unnecessarily cluttered moral outlook.” 

Wednesday, May 26, 2021

Thomas M. Scanlon lecture on Tolerance

 Thomas M. Scanlon (Harvard) delivered the 2021 Knox Lecture on May 21, 2021:

"Further Reflections on Tolerance and its Difficulty" (video)

The lecture was based on Scanlon's paper "Further Reflections on Tolerance and Its Difficulty" (PDF, 2019),

Monday, May 24, 2021

Rainer Forst on Solidarity

* A new paper by Rainer Forst:

"Solidarity: Concept, Conceptions, and Contexts" (PDF, 2021)


The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the concept of solidarity and distinguish various conceptions of solidarity that differ depending on social and normative contexts. The analysis helps to clarify both the different meanings of the term “solidarity” (and the different normative conceptions) and to avoid some of its pitfalls. The latter stem from making false connections between these conceptions, such as the assumption that solidarity must always be of an ethical or nationalist nature, that it is categorially different from justice or is always supererogatory. Solidarity as a virtue comes in many forms and with many justifications and grounds, and one must not reduce this plurality, but instead describe it properly. As already indicated, this opens up the possibility of conflicts between these contexts and dimensions of solidarity. The (as argued) “normatively dependent” concept of solidarity does not tell us to which form we ought to accord priority.

* Discussion: "Zukunft der Solidarität" (Video, May 12, 2021)

Rainer Forst (Frankfurt), Nicole Deitelhoff (Leipzig), Stefanie Dimmeler (Frankfurt), Klaus Günther (Frankfurt), & Jan Pieter Krahnen (Leipzig).

"Dialektik der Solidarität" (Frankfurter Rundschau, May 28, 2021)

Friday, May 14, 2021

A Theory of Justice at Fifty: An Anniversary Conference

The University of Notre Dame is hosting a conference in September marking the 50th anniversary of the publication of John Rawls's "A Theory of Justice":

"A Theory of Justice at Fifty"  

Organized by Paul Weithman (University of Notre Dame)

Registration is now open!

Conference Schedule

Day 1, September 24

* Session 1: Method in Political Philosophy

Aaron James (UC, Irvine) and Laura Valentini (KCL/Munich)

* Session 2: Rawls, Race and Non-Ideal Theory

Charles Mills (CUNY), Tommie Shelby (Harvard), Henry Richardson (Georgetown)

* Session 3: Rawls and Equality

Elizabeth Anderson (Michigan) and Michael Otsuka (LSE & Rutgers) 

* Session 4: Rawls and Public Reason Liberalism

Jonathan Quong (USC), Rainer Forst (Frankfurt), Kevin Vallier (Bowling Green)

Day 2, September 25

* Session 5: Rawls and the History of Political Philosophy

Daniel Brudney (Chicago), Sharon Lloyd (USC), Peter DeMarneffe (Arizona State)

* Session 6: Rawls and Moral Philosophy

Stephen Darwall (Yale) and Susan Neiman (Berlin)

* Session 7: Rawls and Democracy

Joshua Cohen (Berkeley & Apple) and David Estlund (Brown Univeristy)

* Session 8: A Theory of Justice vs. Political Liberalism

Samuel Scheffler (NYU) and Japa Pallikkathayil (Pittsburgh)

* Closing Panel: "What Can We Hope?"

Chair: Paul Weithman (Notre Dame); Speakers: Samuel Freeman (Penn), Erin Kelly (Tufts), Leif Wenar (Stanford)

See also my blog posts:

* John Rawls's lectures on Modern Political Philosophy (audio recordings)

* John Rawls's lectures on John Stuart Mill (audio recordings)

* John Rawls. Debating the Major Questions

* John Rawls at 100.

Wednesday, May 12, 2021

Neues Buch: Theologische Reaktionen auf "Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie"

Wissen und Glauben. Theologische Reaktionen auf das Werk von Jürgen Habermas "Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie"

Hrsg. von Franz Gruber & Markus Knapp

(Freiburg: Verlag Herder, 2021)

254 Seiten


In seinem großen Spätwerk "Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie" rekonstruiert Jürgen Habermas den Diskurs über Glauben und Wissen, aus dem nicht zuletzt die säkulare Welt resultiert. Ob und wie dieser Diskurs weitergehen kann, um die Moderne vor Entgleisungen zu bewahren, ist allerdings fraglich. Der Band setzt sich aus theologischer Perspektive kritisch und nach vorne gerichtet mit dem Werk auseinander. In einem eigenen Text antwortet Jürgen Habermas auf die Beiträge.


Franz Gruber & Markus Knapp - "Einführung"

Markus Knapp - "Schwacher Naturalismus und Transzendenz. Theologische Überlegungen zu Jürgen Habermas' Rekonstruktion des Diskurses über Grauben und Wissen", 

Martin Breul - "Rede vom Handeln Gottes im nachmetaphysischen Denken, oder: Lässt sich mit Habermas Theologie treiben?"

Franz Gruber - "Problemanzeigen für eine Systematische Theologie im Anschluss an Jürgen Habermas' Befund der Trennung von Glauben und Wissen"

Martin Dürnberger - "Vernünftige Freiheit, vernünftiger Glaube. Über Glaubensbegriffe und Lernprozesse"

Hans-Joachim Höhn - "Religion - Ritus - Transzendenz. Lebensdienliche Illusionen?"

Saskia Wendel - "Die Unausdenkbarkeit der Verzweiflung. Theologische Anknüpfung an und Unterscheidung von Habermas' nachmetaphyscher Interpretation Kantischer Metaphysik"

Matthias Lutz-Bachmann - "Hoffnung aus Vernunft. Kants Hoffnung auf ein "ethisches Gemeinwesen"

Magnus Striet - "Verzweiflungsanalysen und der opake Kern der Religion. Jürgen Habermas liest Søren Kierkegaard"

Jürgen Habermas - "Versuch einer Replik"

Monday, May 03, 2021

Habermas turns down Sheikh Zayed Book Award

In a statement published in "Der Spiegel Online" Jürgen Habermas turns down the Sheikh Zayed Book Award: "The Cultural Personality of the Year" for 2021 (225.000 Euro).

"I declared my willingness to accept this year's Sheikh Zayed Book Award. That was a wrong decision, which I correct hereby. I didn't sufficiently make clear to myself the very close connection of the institution, which awards these prizes in Abu Dhabi, with the existing political system there."


* Andreas Fanizadh - “Eine überfällige Kontroverse

Moritz Baumstieger - "Jürgen Habermas und die Emirate: Sehr enttäuscht"

Reinhard Schulze - "Eine Lanze für den Diskurs"

* Stefan Weidner - "Abu Dhabi möchte sich auf die Aufklärung berufen

* Christian Weisflog - "Habermas ist doch kein nützlicher Idiot"

* "Reaktionen auf Habermas' Verzicht auf Sheikh Zayed Book Award"

Among the previous award winners are: Richard van Leeuwen (NL), Philip Kennedy (UK), Jaroslav & Suzanne Stetkevych (USA), Dag Nikolaus Hasse (DE), David Wirmer (DE), Sugita Hideaki (JAP), Pedro Martinez Montavez (ES), and Denys Johnson-Davies (CAN).

Juergen Boos, President of the Frankfurt Book Fair, is member of the scientific commitee.